Her fate was matched by Jutanugarn, who similarly bogied the last to miss the playoff, which was eventually, and somewhat farcically, won by Nordqvist on the first playoff hole as rain and hail fell.
Nordqvist, the 2009 Women's PGA Championship victor, shot a five-under 66 to charge from tied 11th to a share of the lead at the conclusion of the third round in Evian-les-Bains, where the LPGA Tour event was reduced by 18 holes due to bad weather earlier this week.
British Open victor Kim In-kyung is in joint fourth along with world number one Lydia Ko and US Open victor Park Sung-hyun, with the trio three shots adrift of Jutanugarn.
Ko shot a second round 68 - matching her first round score - at the last major of the LPGA season overnight (NZ time) to leave her at six under par, with leader Moriya Jutanugarn of Thailand topping the leaderboard at nine under. It was there that Nordqvist continued her charge, having already picked up three birdies and an eagle to offset the two bogeys with which she had to start the day.
Starting with a one-shot lead, Jutanugarn reached the turn two ahead at 10 under but lost her lead when Nordqvist surged.
The Thai golfer has never won on the LPGA Tour.
Last year, Nordqvist lost a playoff for the U.S. Women's Open after a rules violation on the second extra hole - for touching sand with her club in a fairway bunker - was relayed to her on the next hole.
After the round, Jutanugarn was consoled by younger sister Ariya, who won her first major championship past year.
Ariya Jutanugarn won't be playing Sunday when her sister chases history. She drained a huge putt to save par at the 18 to remain at nine-under par and cap off a Sunday, 66 to match her low round of the year. Nordqvist eagled the par-5 15th to begin her path to victory.
Nordqvist came from five back to win.
Two holes behind, Jutanugarn was struggling at the 13 hole. Her wins at Evian came before it was upgraded in 2013.
Park said: "I didn't play well today, so I have a little gap from the top players". Well, it's just like I try to keep working on my game, keep improve whatever I can.
Despite the ending, Ko's performance makes it two consecutive strong weeks, following her second place in Indianapolis the week prior.
"It's just like my big goal, as I always say, I want to win my first tournament".
The 23-year-old added: "It was good for me playing in the last group in a major at Kingsbarns".